Saturday, July 22, 2017

Apocalypse: The Domestic Enemies

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
I. Three Horsemen

You may have heard of the Four Horsemen of The Apocalypse, but the four I am speaking of today are corporations and/or groups of corporations.

Three of the entities (Big Tobacco, Big Pharma, and Big Chem) are discussed in documents of a library at the University of California at San Francisco (Industry Documents Library).

Those three, IMO, are domestic enemies.

II. Fumes Documents

The fourth horseman, another domestic enemy IMO, is Big Oil (a.k.a. Oil-Qaeda).

The following links are documents in the Smoke & Fumes document library (the number following the name of the document is the document number in the library).

You can click on the link to discover more about a particular document:
Forecasting for the Offshore Oil Boom (1)

Outline of Weather and Wave Forecasting Techniques (2)

The Measurement of Paleotemperatures (3)

The Petroleum Industry Sponsors Air Pollution Research (4)

Reactions Involving Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Organic Compounds at Low Concentrations in Air (5)

Humble Oil Company Radiocarbon Dates II (6)

Radiocarbon Evidence on the Dilution of Atmospheric and Oceanic Carbon by Carbon from Fossil Fuels (7)

Carbon Dioxide Exchange Between Atmosphere and Ocean and the Question of an Increase of Atmospheric CO2 During the Past Decades (8)

A Review of the Air Pollution Research Program of the Smoke and Fumes Committee of the American Petroleum Institute (9)

The Climatic Factor in the Radiocarbon Content of Woods (10)

Late Quaternary Sea Level: A Discussion (11)

The Petroleum Industries' Air Pollution Control Program (12)

Hurricane Formation in the Gulf of Mexico (13)

Metabolic Fractionation of Carbon Isotopes in Marine Plankton - I. Temperature and Respiration Experiments (14)

Hurricane Betsy in the Florida-Bahama Area - Geologic Effects and Comparison with Hurricane Donna (15)

Sources, abundance, and fate of atmospheric pollutants. (16)

An Ocean Data Gathering Program for the Gulf of Mexico (17)

The Astronomical Theory of Climatic Change: Barbados Data (18)

Atmospheric Scavenging Mechanisms and the Fate of Air Pollutants (19)

Environmental Conservation - The Oil and Gas Industries / Volume Two (20)

Eustatic Low Stand of Sea Level Between 125,000 and 105,000 B.P.: Evidence from the Subsurface of Barbados, West Indies (21)

Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment (22)

Pollution and Policy: A Case Essay on California and Federal Experience with Motor Vehicle Air Pollution 1940-1975 (23)

Harold S. Johnston, Ph.D.: Atmospheric Chemistry Research at Berkeley (24)

Interview with Zus (Maria) Haagen-Smit (25)

Excerpt from Student Minority Report on the Stanford Research Institute (26)

Proportional Counting of Carbon Dioxide for Radiocarbon Dating (27)

Damage to Vegetation from Polluted Atmospheres (28)

Los Angeles Fights Smog (29)

Carbon Dioxide May Contribute To Hurricanes (30)

Economic Consideration of Certain Weather and Oceanographic Problems Arising in the Petroleum Industry (31)

Carbon Dioxide Affects Global Ecology (32)

Changes in the Carbon Dioxide Content of the Atmosphere and Sea Due to Fossil Fuel Combustion (33)

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (34)

Climate and Man (35)

The Smog Problem in Los Angeles County (36)

Global Aspects of Photochemical Air Pollution (37)

Sources of Air Pollution: Transportation (Petroleum) (38)

The Use of Asphalt Coatings to Increase Rainfall (39)

Accomplishments in Air Pollution Control by the Petroleum Industry (40)

Air Conservation Report Reflects National Concern (41)

Humble/Enjay/Esso Classified Advertisement (42)

History of the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in Southern Louisiana (43)

Some Legal Consequences of Weather Modification: An Uncertain Forecast (44)

Standard Oil Recruitment at Notre Dame (45)

Weather Modification by Carbon Dust Absorption of Solar Energy (46)

Shell: Climate in a Cage (47)

Method for Recovering a Purified Component From a Gas (48)

Process For The Removal of Acidic Gases From a Gas Mixture (49)

Process For The Removal of Acid Gases From Hydrocarbon Gases Containing The Same (50)

Carbon Monoxide: Natural Sources Dwarf Man's Output (51)

Weather Modification and Smog (52)

Marine Macrophytes as a Global Carbon Sink (53)

Book Reviews: A Worldwide View - Global Effects of Environmental Pollution (54)

Modifying Weather on a Large Scale (55)

Climate Stabilization: For Better or for Worse? (56)

Arctic Offshore Platform (57)

Mobile, Arctic Drilling and Production Platform (58)

Arctic Offshore Platform (59)

Recovery of Shale Oil (60)

Production of Pure Carbon Dioxide (61)

Petroleum Recovery With Inert Gas (62)

Oil Spills in the Arctic Ocean: Extent of Spreading and Possibility of Large-Scale Thermal Effects (63)

Compilation of Workshop Materials: Workshop for an Assessment of the Present and Potential Role of Weather Modification in Agr (64)

Pelleted Carbon Black Containing Surfactant (65)

Icebreaking Cargo Vessel (66)

Tanker Vessel (67)

Cloud Formation and Subsequent Moisture Precipitation (68)

Weather Control by Asphalt (Popular Mechanics) (69)

Astronomical Theory of the Pleistocene Ice Ages: A Brief Historical Review (70)

Astronomical Theory of Climatic Change: Status and Problem (71)

Milankovitch Theory and Climate (72)

Milankovitch Hypothesis Supported by Precise Dating of Coral Reefs and Deep-Sea Sediments (73)

Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery (74)

Ice Ages and Astronomical Causes: Data, Spectral Analysis and Mechanisms (75)

Arctic Marine Oil Spill Research (76)

Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere (77)

Radionuclide Dating of the Recent Sediments of Blelham Tarn (78)

Wet Removal of Sulfur Compounds from the Atmosphere (79)

Algal Culture: From Laboratory to Pilot Plant (80)

Contribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Sources to Atmospheric Sulfur in Parts of the United States (81)

Direct Production of Electrical Energy From Liquid Fuels (82)

Fuel Cell and Fuel Cell Electrodes (83)

Fuel Cell Catalysts (84)

Fuel Cell With Pr-Au Anode and Molybdate-Containing Electrolyte (85)

Low-Polluting Engine and Drive System (86)

Soil: A Natural Sink for Carbon Monoxide (87)

Variation of Radiocarbon Concentration in Modern Wood (88)

Carbon Dioxide Variations in the Atmosphere (89)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels: a procedure for estimation and results for 1950-1982 (90)

Literature and Research Survey to Determine Necessity and Feasibility of Air Pollution Research Project on Combustion of Comme (91)

Platitudes or Performance? (92)

Technical Information Resources in the Air Pollution Field (93)

Indexing and Abstracting Services in the Air Pollution Field (94)

Desulfurization of Caribbean Fuel (95)

Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide and Organic Gases in Arctic Atmospheres (96)

Auto Pollution: Research Group Charged with Conflict of Interest (97)

Toxicity of some Atmospheric Pollutants (98)

The Distribution of Carbon-14 in Nature (99)

The Environmental and Ecological Forum 1970-1971 (100)

Stratospheric Water Vapour Increase due to Human Activities (101)

Relative Reactivity of Various Hydrocarbons in Polluted Atmospheres (102)

Photochemical Reaction Products in Air Pollution (103)

National Conference on Air Pollution Press Release (104)

Progress in the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution (105)

Weather and Climate Modification: Problems and Prospects (106)

Air Conservation (107)

Agreement Between R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and Exxon Chemical Company (500)

Memorandum: Polypropylene Fibers Produced by Enjay Chemical Company (501)

Exxon Filter Meeting Notes (503)

Proposed Agreements between RJR Tobacco Company and Exxon Chemical Company (504)

Patent: Cigarette Filter from Polypropylene Fibers (505)

Evaluations of Exxon Polypropylene Filters (506)

Memorandum to Messrs. Donahue, Oechler, Pepples, Simeonidis and Wall (507)

Smoke Analysis and Physical Properties of SFE-N-68-Q Cigarettes, Pall Mall Filter As Controls - Special Sample With Pall Mall (508)

Initial Evaluation of Esso Polypropylene Filter Material (509)

What is Different About Exxon's Patented PP Filter (510)

Meeting with Enjay Chemical Representatives (511)

Pollution: A Comprehensive Survey of Business and the Environmental Crisis (530)

Letter to John W. Hill (531)

Confidential Report: Tobacco Industry Research Committee Meeting (532)

Staff Memo: European Activities (534)

Staff Memo (535)

Letter to Kerryn King (536)

Memo to Eugene J.T. Flanagan (537)

Interview with John W. Hill (538)

Letter to Dennis M. Dyer (539)

Memorandum to Mr. Timothy V. Hartnett: Excerpts from Constitutions, Charters or By-Laws (540)

Confidential Report on Meeting January 18, 1954 (541)

Letter to Kerryn King (542)

Letter to Fred Panzer (560)

Memorandum to Messrs. Donahue, Oechler, Pepples, Simeonidis, and Wall (561)

Letter to Catherine J. Yoe (562)

Letter to Bernie Robinson re: Washington Business Roundtable, enclosed (563)

Support for AdTI (567)

ATCO Letter to Union Oil SPV documenting similar partnerships with other oil cos (580)

Union Oil letter to ATCO-Annex-Delivering ATCO Message (581)

Exxon Direct Retail Marketing Strategy 1991 (582)

Exxon-RJR Internal Marketing Document (584)

RJR-Humble Oil Yankee Baseball Sponsorship (585)

Exxon-RJR Feb Managers Meeting (586)

Colony Tie-In With the Petroleum Industry: The American Tobacco Company (587)

Chevron Stations & Philip Morris USA Meeting (588)

ExxonMobil Merchandising Manual Exxon. Mobil/R.J Reynolds Retail Partnership (589)

Union Oil Contract Memo (591)

Union Oil Company and The American Tobacco Company Dodgers Agreement (592)

Car Life Report to Consumers: Car Exhausts and Cancer (620)

Lung Cancer, Smoking, and Atmospheric Pollution (621)

Laundered Research: The Finished Product i.e. What You See (622)

Memorandum: Membership of ACS National Commission on Smoking and Public Policy (623)

Tobacco Institute Newsletter (624)

The Silent Killer that Stalks Our Streets (625)

Know Your Board of Directors (627)

The Quantitative Analysis of Cigarette Smoke, Part I (640)

Smoke Analysis and Physical Properties of SFE-N-68-Q Cigarettes (641)

Facts About High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (642)

Recommendation to End Mayo Oxidation Studies Sponsorship (643)

A Report on Mass Spectrometry at the Shell and Humble Oil Companies (644)

Corporate Research Agreements (645)

High Temperature Mass Spectrometry (646)

Annual Report (647)

Tobacco Institute Newsletter (648)

The Biologic Effect from Long-Term Exposure of Primates to Carbon Monoxide (649)

Nitrogen Oxide Content of Smokes From Different Types of Tobacco (660)

Research Agreement between Armour Research Foundation of Illinois Institute of Technology and P. Lorrilard Company, Inc. (661)

Armour Research Foundation Final Report On 'Physical Properties of Cigarette Smoke' (662)

Quarterly Section Research Report, Physical Chemistry Section (663)

Stanford Research Institute Project (664)

Stanford Research Institute Organization Chart (665)

Annual Research and Development Project Review Minutes (667)

Dale M. Coulson Resume (668)

Unknown (669)

The Smog Problem in Los Angeles County (670)

Proposal for Research: Development of Portable Analytical Instrumentation (671)

Stanford Research Institute Memo (672)

Unknown (673)

Philip Morris Incorporated Inter-Office Correspondence (674)

Auto Pollution: Research Group Charged with Conflict of Interest (675)

The Role of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide in Vehicle Accidents (678)

Soil: A Natural Sink for Carbon Monoxide (679)

Recommendation to End Mayo Oxidation Studies Sponsorship (681)

Unknown (682)

Contract with Stanford Research Institute (684)

Re-Evaluation of a Stanford Research Institute Zeolite for CO Removal from Cigarette Smoke (685)

Memorandum: Psychographics (686)

Development of Portable Analytical Instrumentation (688)

Presenting The Virginia Institute for Scientific Research (691)

VISR News: VISR President Honored with University's Thomas Jefferson Award (692)

Statement by Theodor D. Sterling. Ph.D. (730)

Unknown (731)

Unknown (732)

Occupational Exposure to Organic Lead Compounds (733)

Report and Recommendations of the Advisory Panel to the Feasibility Study (734)

The Feasibility of a Definitive Evaluation of the Data Concerning Smoking and General Morbidity and Disability: Status Report (735)

Statement of Dr. Theodor Sterling Before the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce (736)

Confidential Report Scientific Advisory Board Meeting (737)

Unknown (738)

Report on Meeting of Scientific Advisory Board, TIRC (751)

Introduction: The Tobacco Institute Past & Present (758)

CRC APRAC (759)

Lawrence G. Rawl Profile for Board Member Search (770)

Letter to R. G. Baker re: Sir Richard Dobson (771)

Experimental Production of Carcinoma in Rhesus Monkeys (800)

Mathematical Analysis of Lead Burdens (801)

Note from George Weissman to Paul Morgan (804)

Bronchial Changes Studied in Smokers (805)

Letter from Theodor D. Sterling to Robert C. Hockett: Recommendations Endorsed by the Panel (806)

The Air Around Us (807)

Note from David R. Hardy (810)

Barclay Low Tar Cigarettes (811)

Letter from D.M. Hughes to M.A. Khan (812)

Is Smog the Real Culprit of Lung Cancer? (813)

Letter from H.R. Bentley to C.G. Hunter (814)

Shell International Research: Cigarette Filter of Alkene Polymer (815)

Notes on Trip to NYU - Bellevue Medical Center Institute of Industrial Medicine (817)

Properties of High-Boiling Petroleum Products (818)

Copy of Cablegram re: British Empire Cancer Campaign Reports (819)

Patent Specification: A Process for the Production of Foamed Polypropylene, and Articles Produced Therefrom (820)

Sloan-Kettering Institute Meeting, Nov 5 1953 (823)

Process for Manufacturing Foamed Polypropylene (824)

Keyword Method (825)

Russian US Air Pollution Inspection (826)

List of Organizations of Interest to Tobacco Industry (830)

Report and Recommendations of the Advisory Panel to the Feasibility Study (832)

The Feasibility of a Definitive Evaluation Concerning Smoking and General Morbidity (834)

Note from Theodor Sterling to Bob Hockett: Interim Report (836)

Letter from D.M. Hughes to M.A. Khan Regarding "The Fundamental Aspects of Gas Chromatography" (843)

Chronology of Events with Respect to Mr. Hamner and The American Tobacco Company Research Department (846)

New York University Industrial School of Medicine Meeting Summary (848)

Letter to D.G.I. Felton Regarding Visit to Shell (849)

Memo from J.K. Wells to I.W. Hughes: TI "New Directions" Discussion Meeting (850)

Memo from H.R. Kornegay and S.D. Chilcote to Executive Committee: New Directions Implementation (851)

Letter from T. Sterling to David Hardy: Guidelines for the Design of Legislation for Establishing Review Mechanism (852)

A Talk by the Honorable Horace R. Kornegay (853)

Goals for Tobacco Institute Public Affairs (854)

TI "New Directions" Discussion Agenda. (855)

New Directions: A Presentation of the Tobacco Institute Staff (856)

Tobacco Institute Proposal: New Directions. Tobacco Institute Proposal: New Directions. 1981 September 29. Brown & William (857)

Research Intelligence Chart (858)

New Directions Implementation Third Draft (859)

Notes of a Tentative Nature Taken on the Ecusta - L and M - Duke Conference - January 30, 1954 (860)

DRAFT OF MEMORANDUM ON PROPOSED WORK ON RELATION OF SMOKING TO CANCER (861)

Memorandum (862)

New York University, Report On Visit Of Dr. Norton Nelson And Dr. Alvin Kosak To Richmond Concerning Their Cigarette-Cancer Pr (863)

Report On Visit Of Dr. Norton Nelson And Dr. Alvin Kosak, New York University, To Richmond On March 27, 1956 (864)

KOSAK 1959 (19590000). THE COMPOSITION OF TOBACCO SMOKE (865)

SUPPLEMENTARY GRANT REQUEST BY DR. ALVIN I. KOSAK, (NO. 141, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY). (867)

TIRC Committees (999)

III. In Closing ...

Currently, the U.S.eh? is hijacked via a coup of The Four Horsemen of the American Apocalypse (A Tale of Coup Cities, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13).

Watch the brief video below to learn something about them ... so we can defeat them.



Friday, July 21, 2017

When Accountability Is A Plague - 4

"Mack The Finger said to Louie the king"
A bit more than seven years ago, Dredd Blog began this series that is focused on a fundamental characteristic of democracies, which is also a characteristic missing in non-democracies.

So, as despots know, remove accountability and you have removed democracy ... and replaced it with demockracy.

The shocking news today is about whether or not the president can pardon himself, his family, and his staff, but not only that, an associated discussion to that news is "when will the president fire the Special Investigator Mueller" (Washington Post: Can Trump pardon anyone? Himself? Can he fire Mueller? Your questions, answered).

The essence of this discussion was portrayed, in the first post of this series, as:
Most any academician will have a rap for this subject of accountability, which will go something like:
Accountability is the missing conceptual link in the current debate over how best to advance democracy. Democracy affirms the need to justify decisions made by citizens and their representatives: it is a system that connects the values of the individual with the decisions of the collective. The preferences of citizens revealed by fair elections (representation) or organized and definitive discussion (deliberation) are the starting points of democratic legitimacy.
...
A clearly defined accountability system is crucial to any system of representative democracy because citizens, through their vote, legitimize or give authority to leaders to act.
(The Accountability Ladder, PDF, emphasis added). As it turns out, accountability is an important, required, and essential ingredient for U.S. Democracy.
(When Accountability Is A Plague). There is a parallel concept that goes along with the notion of accountability, in the sense of the other side of that coin, which is called immunity:
This is offered to replace the more difficult way, which is "follow the money", because that way has become very difficult, what with all the secret offshore banking systems that are now operational:
The mantra for such investigations used to be "follow the money", but (since that requires looking into offshore banking systems) for we amateurs there is an easier mantra: "follow the immunity."

Ask "who has committed these crimes against the American people and their Constitution?"

Then list their names, and then finally ask: "have they been held accountable?"

If not, follow their dealings and their associates through the shadows, because since they are immune from prosecution for their crimes they have committed with impunity, they are in with those who have pulled off the coup (A Tale of Coup Cities - 4).
(ACLU vs. Clapper, Alexander, Hagel, Holder, and Mueller - 3). Take for example, Dick Cheney, who still brags about torture in public, but fears no prosecution.
(Follow The Immunity). The mantra "follow the money" leads to a place on Highway 61 that is not the end of the road.

Assume that following the money leads to  a criminal indictment of friends, family, and officials of the president, and that he pardons them.

They are then immune from accountability.

If any administration gets too cozy with pardons, which extinguish accountability, the next stop on Highway 61 is the land of impunity:
"Impunity arises from a failure by States to meet their obligations to investigate violations; to take appropriate measures in respect of the perpetrators, particularly in the area of justice, by ensuring that those suspected of criminal responsibility are prosecuted, tried and duly punished; to provide victims with effective remedies and to ensure that they receive reparation for the injuries suffered; to ensure the inalienable right to know the truth about violations; and to take other necessary steps to prevent a recurrence of violations."
(Wikipedia). Think of the dictator of North Korea as a matured form of impunity, and think of the current president of the Philippines as a sprouting example.

It all starts with a decline in accountability, and accelerates when impeachment is off the table (Duterte impeachment attempt fails) due to gerrymandering (Gerrymandering - Geological Deceit?, 2, 3, 4).

The previous post in this series is here.



Sunday, July 16, 2017

The World According To Measurements - 7

Fig. 1 Climate Central
Since the Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater - 2010 (TEOS-10) became available some have wondered about it.

The freely available toolkit comes in several programming languages and can be easily downloaded (TEOS-10 Software).

As to relevant changes brought about by TEOS-10, nothing has changed with regard to taking measurements, a point that the scientists involved emphasize:
"Importantly, while Absolute Salinity (g/kg) is the salinity variable that is needed in order to calculate density and other seawater properties, the
Fig. 2 Sea level change measurements
salinity which should be archived in national data bases continues to be the measured salinity variable, Practical Salinity (PSS-78). To avoid confusion while the use of Practical Salinity in scientific publications is phased out, published values of salinity should be specifically identified as being either Practical Salinity with the symbol SP or Absolute Salinity with the symbol SA."
(TEOS). In other words, keep on measuring in situ, but analyze those measurements with the new techniques that will result in more accurate and coherent discussions.

The heat being stored in the oceans takes exacting measurements and processes in order to track and study it:
"Roemmich estimates that at depths from 500 to 2000 meters, oceans are warming by .002 degrees Celsius every year, and in the top 500 meters, they’re gaining .005 degrees C. annually. While that may not seem like a
Fig. 3 Sea level impacts compared
big temperature jump, it amounts to a staggering load of heat when multiplied throughout the depths of this immense system that covers 70 percent of the planet.

Temperature gains are larger at the sea surface, which heats faster than the ocean as a whole. The top 75 meters have warmed an average of .01 degrees C per year since 1971."
(Yale, cf Fig. 1). The ".002" and ".005" values are tiny because the ocean is so voluminous that it can take a truly vast amount of heat, but it can also distribute that heat widely enough that detecting it in the deeps is a science in itself.
Fig. 4 Practical and Absolute Salinity

That said, I prepared some graphs to show how I distinguish between the "practical salinity" (measured in the ocean "in situ") and "absolute salinity" so as to keep the two concepts clean.

As the TEOS site suggested ("the salinity which should be archived in national data bases continues to be the measured salinity variable") I store the in situ data that I download from the World Ocean Database (WOD) in an SQL database in the original values (except the ~1% that are out of bounds, as noted here).

Fig. 5 Conservative and In Situ Temperatures
I like to be transparent so I prepared some graphs using a software module that processes both SA ("Absolute Salinity") and SP ("Practical Salinity" or in situ or measured salinity) separately.

The graph at Fig. 4 compares Absolute Salinity with Practical Salinity, and the graph at  Fig. 5 compares the TEOS-10 concept "Conservative Temperature" with the in situ or in place measurements stored in the WOD database.
Fig. 6 Volume Change Comparison

I even did a graph that compares thermosteric volume change using Absolute Salinity and Conservative Temperature (TEOS concepts) with thermosteric volume change using measured temperature and salinity (Fig. 6).

These graphs use different colors for each type, and use a granularity that makes it easier to see the differences than panel graphs do (Fig. 3).

That said, it is still obvious that the relevant "thermal" condition is not expansion (it is contraction) no matter which type of graph is used for comparison.

The previous post in this series is here.

Lyrics to All Along The Watchtower available here ...



Saturday, July 15, 2017

Don't Worry, Be Happy - 3

Reality is too real for comfort
I. Introduction

In the first post of this series, I wrote about a call a mayor received from our climate denier president (Don't Worry, Be Happy).

He was a mayor who supported climate denialism.

He was a mayor on a sinking ship, or to be more exact, an island a la Atlantis, yes, an island slowly becoming submerged below the waters of the Chesapeake Bay (66% gone).

Right now.

Like thirteen or so islands that have already done so in that area (The Extinction of Chesapeake Bay Islands).

II. Consistency

Some seven years ago I posted "Global Climate & Homeland Insecurity" which quoted military officials who indicated clearly that the greatest threat to national security was climate change caused by global warming caused by the promiscuous use of fossil fuels (cf. Don't Worry, Be Happy - 2).

Regular readers know that here at Dredd Blog we are not deniers, we just report what is happening, what is real, and that with no apologies (we didn't make this reality, but it is here: You Are Here).

III. It Is Now Cosmopolitan

The president I mentioned above, who called the mayor, is not cosmopolitan, even being the odd man out at the climate change agreement in Paris recently.

But, when it comes to posts or articles in a well known and cosmopolitan magazine, some degree of doomerism has now become Americana.

Not long after the first post in this series, a blockbuster of a piece, published in a well known magazine, caused an eruption of discourse:
"We published “The Uninhabitable Earth” on Sunday night, and the response since has been extraordinary — both in volume (it is already the most-read article in New York Magazine’s history) and in kind."
(The Uninhabitable Earth, Annotated Edition, emphasis added). The reactions were in accord with the cultural amygdala realm of fear generators (Hypothesis: The Cultural Amygdala).

Fear brings on the need for the product called "security" on a scale called "national security" or cultural security.

Anyway, the impact of climate change discussed in the article is not socially acceptable to those who have a world view expressed by the phrase "don't worry, be happy," thus, the inevitable uproar of fear engendered denial ensued.

It was caused by group-think fear, which is an essence I have mentioned in the past here on Dredd Blog:
One of the most destructive and perplexing problems facing contemporary society is the pervasive tendency of people to respond with hostility and disdain toward those who are different from themselves. This tendency to reject those who are different is well-documented in the literature on prejudice (e.g., Tajfel, 1982), the similarity-attraction relationship (for a review, see Byrne, 1971), and reactions to deviance (e.g., Miller & Anderson, 1979; Schachter, 1951). A common notion in much of the theorizing concerning these effects is that people prefer similar others over dissimilar others because of the consensual validation of one's own beliefs and attitudes provided by similar others (e.g., Byrne, 1971;Festinger, 1954; Tajfel, 1982). The research reported in this article was concerned with the psychological basis of this need for consensual validation.
...
Put simply, people's beliefs about reality provide a buffer against the anxiety that results from living in a largely uncontrollable, perilous universe, where the only certainty is death.
...
Thus, as Byrne (1971) and others have suggested, attraction to similar others can be explained as resulting from the consensual validation of beliefs that such others provide. From a terror management perspective, then, positive reactions to similar others and negative reactions to dissimilar others occur partly because of the impact such individuals have on faith in one's worldview.

A recent paper by the biologist Janis L Dickinson, published in the journal Ecology and Society, proposes that constant news and discussion about global warming makes it difficult for people to repress thoughts of death, and that they might respond to the terrifying prospect of climate breakdown in ways that strengthen their character armour but diminish our chances of survival. There is already experimental evidence suggesting that some people respond to reminders of death by increasing consumption. Dickinson proposes that growing evidence of climate change might boost this tendency, as well as raising antagonism towards scientists and environmentalists. Our message, after all, presents a lethal threat to the central immortality project of Western society: perpetual economic growth, supported by an ideology of entitlement and exceptionalism.
(Convergence - Fear of Death Syndrome). The dynamics are well understood by those who study the phenomenon, however, it is generally not a treatable fear.

IV. The Clamor

The author of the New Yorker piece soon experienced the dynamic, and wrote of it in his follow-up piece:
Within hours, the article spawned a fleet of commentary across newspapers, magazines, blogs, and Twitter, much of which came from climate scientists and the journalists who cover them.
...
What are the risks of terrifying or depressing readers so much they disengage from the issue, and what should a journalist make of those risks?

I hope, in the annotations and commentary below, I have added some context. But I also believe very firmly in the set of propositions that animated the project from the start: that the public does not appreciate the scale of climate risk; that this is in part because we have not spent enough time contemplating the scarier half of the distribution curve of possibilities, especially its brutal long tail, or the risks beyond sea-level rise; that there is journalistic and public-interest value in spreading the news from the scientific community, no matter how unnerving it may be; and that, when it comes to the challenge of climate change, public complacency is a far, far bigger problem than widespread fatalism — that many, many more people are not scared enough than are already “too scared.” In fact, I don’t even understand what “too scared” would mean.
(ibid, The Uninhabitable Earth, Annotated Edition, emphasis added). And so, the cosmopolitan climate change green world meets the doomer world as clamor clouds the cognitive skies.

V. The Missing Groopie Psychoanalysis

Dr. Freud recognized the societal need to develop a treatment of groups, but also realized it would not be as easy as individual psychoanalysis and treatment:
If the evolution of civilization has such a far reaching similarity with the development of an individual, and if the same methods are employed in both, would not the diagnosis be justified that many systems of civilization——or epochs of it——possibly even the whole of humanity——have become neurotic under the pressure of the civilizing trends? To analytic dissection of these neuroses, therapeutic recommendations might follow which could claim a great practical interest. I would not say that such an attempt to apply psychoanalysis to civilized society would be fanciful or doomed to fruitlessness. But it behooves us to be very careful, not to forget that after all we are dealing only with analogies, and that it is dangerous, not only with men but also with concepts, to drag them out of the region where they originated and have matured. The diagnosis of collective neuroses, moreover, will be confronted by a special difficulty. In the neurosis of an individual we can use as a starting point the contrast presented to us between the patient and his environment which we assume to be normal. No such background as this would be available for any society similarly affected; it would have to be supplied in some other way. And with regard to any therapeutic application of our knowledge, what would be the use of the most acute analysis of social neuroses, since no one possesses power to compel the community to adopt the therapy? In spite of all these difficulties, we may expect that one day someone will venture upon this research into the pathology of civilized communities. [p. 39]
...
Men have brought their powers of subduing the forces of nature
to such a pitch that by using them they could now very easily exterminate one another to the last man. They know this——hence arises a great part of their current unrest, their dejection, their mood of apprehension. [p. 40]
(The Authoritarianism of Climate Change). Indeed, the dementia caused by paranoid fear has resulted in the U.S. Government being currently changed from gung-ho "climate change is real" into gung-ho denialism.

VI. Conclusion

Americans have been conditioned to accept climate change as a cool thing, something chic and a way into the in crowd, but when the discussion gets too real the progressives become hostile along with the deniers.

This is real and serious right now (When Rising Seas Hit Home: Hard Choices Ahead for Hundreds of US Coastal Communities (2017), Union of Concerned Scientists).



Thursday, July 13, 2017

Germ Warfare Comes To America

American Hospitals are in the enemy's cross-hairs

I. Destroying Americans With Depravity Bombs

Some seven years ago, in a Dredd Blog series (Your Health Is Their Number 1 Enemy?! , 2). I quoted people who were no doubt trained at the War College.

I quoted people who wrote that your health care is the biggest threat to the Pentagon.

That anti-health care diatribe was posted at National Defense Magazine, a well-known site.

After reading it, I posted:
Pentagonia, capitol of Bullshitistan, well aware of the current political climate, has declared who its greatest enemy is, believing it is health care:
The U.S. military keeps searching the horizon for a peer competitor, the challenger that must be taken seriously. Is it China? What about an oil rich and resurgent Russia?

But the threat that is most likely to hobble U.S. military capabilities is not a peer competitor, rather it is health care.
(The Enemy the Pentagon Should Fear Most: Health Care, National Defense Magazine, emphasis added). We have been pointing out this very strange ideology for a while now, using "MOMCOM" symbolism to isolate the militant energy fighting against the middle class and poor in the United States.
(Deja Vu - Guns v. Butter Election Looms, March 22, 2010). That post I quoted from was subsequently deleted by National Defense Magazine (the link in the quote above is to The Wayback Machine copy).

The sicko sycophant who wrote the National Defense Magazine article is an enemy of the welfare of the people of the United States, whom the military took an oath to protect by, among other things,  protecting the U.S. Constitution.

II. Target Number One: The Helpless

Americans are known historically for lending a helping hand to their neighbor, as is written at the Statue of Liberty:
"Give me

Is this a fake?
your tired,

your poor,

Your huddled masses

yearning to breathe free,

The wretched refuse

of your teeming shore.

Send these,

the homeless,

tempest-tost

to me,

I lift my lamp

beside the golden door!"
(Wikipedia). Who are the enemies of these American sentiments, who are the enemies of rural hospitals, who are these enemies of the American people who need health and other care at times during their journey to a better life?

III. "Let's Seriously Hurt and Harm
Twenty or Thirty Million American People"

That is something that enemies of the American People want to do, and would do if they could.

But they can't.

Alone.

They need people in powerful places inside America to lose their minds and turn on "tired ... poor ... huddled masses yearning to breathe free ... wretched refuse ... homeless ... tempest-tost" people in rural America, in American cities, and anywhere sickness and disease attack us.

These moles in "a despotic minority" are feverishly and fiendishly working to remove health care in order to "make America great again."

IV. What "Can't Happen Here" Is Happening Here

I recently quoted an Encyclopedia Britannica article concerning the once-most-quoted historian:
"In the Study Toynbee examined the rise and fall of 26 civilizations in the course of human history, and he concluded that they rose by responding successfully to challenges under the leadership of creative minorities composed of elite leaders. Civilizations declined when their leaders stopped responding creatively, and the civilizations then sank owing to the sins of nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority. Unlike Spengler in his The Decline of the West, Toynbee did not regard the death of a civilization as inevitable, for it may or may not continue to respond to successive challenges. Unlike Karl Marx, he saw history as shaped by spiritual, not economic forces."
(Stockholm Syndrome: The Declaration of Intellectual Dependence). That description is way too close for comfort.

V. Conclusion

Those Americans who came and went, before we were born or became Americans, knew history well enough to use the phrase "I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic" (Supreme Court).

Those who want to do the harm to Americans (harm that hostile foreign enemies would want to do), and who took that oath not to harm Americans, are in fact domestic enemies.

Defend her from them!

Trump (R-RU) has a friend named Jim:



Wednesday, July 12, 2017

On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 21

Fig. 1 WOD Zone map
I. Background

Water temperature and heat content in bodies of water can be mentioned or used by writers in a manner that does not connote the actual dynamics taking place.

In other words, misconceptions can be unintentionally created, whether wanted or not.

So, as regular readers know, I have been trying to clarify some of the greater and more widespread misconceptions that have been generated by research practices that only skim the surface.

In that pursuit, I recently reprocessed my partial copy (CTD & PFL datasets) of the World Ocean Database (WOD) again, in order to make it even more useful.

The exercise I went through was to convert tables in Appendix 11 in the WOD Manual (pages 132 - 137; PDF pages 142  - 148; WOD Manual PDF Link) into SQL tables which I could then access from various software modules.

The manual explains that appendix as follows:
APPENDIX 11. ACCEPTABLE RANGES OF OBSERVED VARIABLES AS A FUNCTION OF DEPTH, BY BASIN

The range values provided has range values for temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll, and alkalinity. The range values in
Fig. 2 World Ocean Areas
the tables are used to help identify the most obvious questionable values for these variables. Please note that ranges are given on 33 standard levels (+ one for depths deeper than 5500 m). All standard depths in between given standard depths have the same values as the nearest standard depth shown (for example, 90m standard depth uses 100m range values. If a standard depth is equidistance between two shown standard depths, the ranges values will be the same as the shallower shown standard depth (i.e. 5 m range values will be the same as 0 m shown values, not 10 m shown values).
(ibid). As you can see, the different ocean areas have different maximum and minimum values per se, and further, those maximum and minimum values change with depth.

II. Conditions

In my work, I only use temperature, salinity, and sea pressure values from the WOD (excluding "oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll, and alkalinity" values).

Fig. 3
One reason I do so is that I am mainly exploring the hypothesis that "thermal expansion is the main cause of sea level rise for the past 100 years" or so (On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19).
Fig. 4

Fig. 5
That hypothesis is based mainly on ocean temperature, ocean salinity, and sea pressure at relevant depths.
Fig. 6

Fig. 7
The conventional application of that naive hypothesis is that "water expands when heated."

That is not absolutely true, because water also contracts (shrinks) when heated, depending on the temperature of the water at the time the heat is applied (ibid).
Fig. 8

More importantly, water also contracts (shrinks) when heat leaves that water (again depending on temperature of the water at the time the heat is removed).

III. Application of the Tables

Prior to having those tables in an SQL table, the only way I had to analyze the validity of measurements of temperature and salinity was to reject measurements which the general error flags offered.

If the data package had any error condition other than zero (no errors) I rejected the measurements outright.

Now, I can use measurements regardless of useless errors ("the scientist is ugly") by seeing if the measurement is within the maximum and minimum parameters of the ocean area where the measurements were taken.

In addition to that, I can conform the measurement to the maximum or minimum.

If it is too high I can modify it to the maximum, or if it is too low of  a value, I can modify it to the minimum, and thereby preserve some of the valuable measurement data that way.

IV. Complications

The zone map at Fig. 1 can lead one to think "this will be simple because the zones all look like similar square thingys."

Fig. 9
Take a look at Fig. 2 and compare it to the Appendix 11 values and you realize at once how different they all are, and how difficult it is when a billion records are screaming past, to determine exactly which ocean a zone is in (and other difficulties).

So, I reprocessed all of the nearly one billion measurements, applying the maximum and minimum value constraints on the temperature and salinity values if needed.

Interestingly, the PFL datasets (produced by ARGO submarine-like machines) were remarkably accurate, and the CTD measurements were not bad either (overall, less than 1% needed modification to conform to the Appendix 11 restrictions).

V. The World According To Measurements

Another concern I had was with the TEOS-10 toolbox which I have begun to use (Golden 23 Zones Meet TEOS-10).

Some may think that because that toolbox conforms measurements to well studied conclusions, the measurements are being ignored.

So, the module I wrote uses all PSMSL tide gauge station records, and all WOD zone records (not limited to the "golden 23"), and keeps track of the in situ measurements separate from the TEOS calculated values.

Compare the in situ measurement graph for temperature (Fig. 7) with the TEOS-10 toolbox generated "conservative temperature" (Fig. 4) and notice that they have no major discernible differences.

But the Absolute Salinity graph (Fig. 8) compared with the in situ measurements of salinity (Fig. 5) does reveal discernible differences.

That is no surprise in the sense that the previous 40 years of measuring salinity in ocean water used a less reliable technique (TEOS-10 Home).

VI. The Other Graphs

The graphs, today, that bear most upon my argument against the "thermal expansion is the main cause of sea level rise for the past 100 years," are Fig. 3, Fig. 6, and Fig. 9.

The calculation of thermosteric ocean volume change (Fig. 9) compared with tide gauge records of sea level change (Fig. 6) are at odds with the thermal expansion hypothesis.

Putting them all on one 4-panel graph (Fig. 3) further supports the notion that the thermal expansion hypothesis is at odds with the world of measurements.

The graphs show that. during the same 1967-2016 time frame. sea level was rising as thermosteric volume fell.

VII. Conclusion

The Larson C ice-shelf calving is closer to the truth than the thermal expansion hypothesis is.

That is, the Greenland, Antarctic, and other ice concentrations in the Cryosphere are and have been the single greatest source of sea level change from day one of climate change caused by global warming.

"The ice is melting, the ice is melting."

The previous post in this series is here.

Monday, July 10, 2017

On The Origin of "Conspiracy Theory" - 7

Got Dirt on Hill?
The Trump trinity of actors has committed criminal conspiracy according to the facts revealed in breaking news this weekend (Trump’s Son Met With Russian Lawyer After Being Promised Damaging Information on Clinton).

Donald Trump Jr. along with Jared Kushner and Paul Manafort agreed to go to a lawyer, who does "business" with Kremlin operatives, to collect dirt on a competing presidential candidate, Hillary Clinton (one of the people they met was a spy - New York Supreme Court).

To those in these days of being spoon fed by main stream media agendas, a "conspiracy theory" is a mythical story that cannot possibly be real.

In the real world, millions of court cases involve a "conspiracy theory" as serious as a heart attack, and is commonly what happens when a federal prosecutor brings a case against a defendant in frequently used criminal conspiracy indictments.

Federal criminal prosecutions against conspiracy activity is quite easy to bring about, and prosecutors really like cases based on conspiracy theories:
Over one-quarter of all federal criminal prosecutions and a large number of state cases involve prosecutions for conspiracy.
...
Consider how a law school textbook might introduce the elements of traditional conspiracy law: Imagine that Joe and Sandra agree to rob a bank. From the moment of agreement, they can be found guilty of conspiracy even if they never commit the robbery (it’s called “inchoate liability”). Even if the bank goes out of business, they can still be liable for the conspiracy (“impossibility” is not a defense). Joe can be liable for other crimes that Sandra commits to further the conspiracy’s objective, like hot-wiring a getaway car (it’s called “Pinkerton” liability, after a 1946 Supreme Court case involving tax offenses). He can’t evade liability by staying home on the day of the robbery (a conspirator has to take an affirmative step to “withdraw”). And if the bank heist takes place, both Joe and Sandra can be charged with bank robbery and with the separate crime of conspiracy, each of which carries its own punishment (the crime of conspiracy doesn’t “merge” with the underlying crime). Why should conspiracy liability begin at the moment of “agreement,” before any crime is committed? Why can a conspirator be charged with both the inchoate offense of conspiracy and the robbery? Why should the law punish conspirators even if it’s impossible for them to commit the crime they planned? Why is withdrawal from a conspiracy so difficult?
(On The Origin of "Conspiracy Theory", quoting the Yale Law Journal). It isn't what Blind Willie McTell makes up as "fake news" at all.

The agreement between two or more individuals ("conspiracy") to take political dirt from foreign sources, and use it against a fellow American campaign competitor, violates U.S. election law (The latest Russia revelations lay the groundwork for a conspiracy case).

The previous post in this series is here.



Saturday, July 8, 2017

Stockholm Syndrome: The Declaration of Intellectual Dependence

This is
Could anyone be like one famous American? (who said and wrote some radical things, such as: “The end of the human race will be that it will eventually die of civilization.” - Ralph Waldo Emerson)

Emerson even brought into being the "intellectual Declaration of Independence" according to Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.

I will offer one such person, even though there are many, who fits the bill of saying radical things about civilization:
"In other words, a society does not ever die 'from natural causes', but always dies from suicide or murder --- and nearly always from the former, as this chapter has shown."
(A Study of History, by Arnold J. Toynbee). In Toynbee's mind, what was it that causes that widespread process of the suicide of civilizations?

The fellows of his "homeland" put it like this:
"In the Study Toynbee examined the rise and fall of 26 civilizations in the course of human history, and he concluded that they rose by responding successfully to challenges under the leadership of creative minorities composed of elite leaders. Civilizations declined when their leaders stopped responding creatively, and the civilizations then sank owing to the sins of nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority. Unlike Spengler in his The Decline of the West, Toynbee did not regard the death of a civilization as inevitable, for it may or may not continue to respond to successive challenges. Unlike Karl Marx, he saw history as shaped by spiritual, not economic forces."
(Encyclopedia Britannica, emphasis added). Have you read about any past world wars associated with that trinity ... or somilar talk of a possible coming war?

That trinity of "nationalism," "militarism" and "a tyrannical despotic minority" is the essence of a unification of sycophants, which I warned about in a recent post (Beware of the Sycophant Epidemic).

In the series Etiology of Social Dementia, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and Agnotology: The Surge, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 a lot of the symptoms of "our brains on propaganda" were at issue.

It is clear that the demolition of the sound mind of a culture, a civilization, is something that is perpetual (Stockholm Syndrome On Steroids, 2).

A classic example for our time was presented in "Hypothesis: The Cultural Amygdala - 2" discussing the documentary about Anwar Congo and a nation that had descended into a sycophantic group.

Reality ... it's not just for happiness anymore.